Dear BERMUN 2 Participants,
Welcome to the International Court of Justice at BERMUN 2 2019!
The ICJ is a unique organ because the procedure and goals pursued in the ICJ differ from other MUN committees. It offers new opportunities to learn about international law and policies. Whether you will be attending this conference as a judge or an advocate, having an open mind and a willingness to learn will make this an extremely valuable experience.
At this year’s BERMUN 2 conference, we will be examining the case “Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay)”. Argentina claimed that the pulp mills on the River Uruguay damaged water quality and thus was a threat to the environment. Hence, Argentina filed an application to the International Court of Justice in 2006, accusing Uruguay of having breached substantive treaty obligations that coordinated bilateral river management. In its application, Argentina specifically accuses Uruguay of having unilaterally authorized the construction of pulp mills on the River Uruguay, and therefore, not complying with the obligatory course of actions under the 1975 Statute.
While the ICJ established a “Chamber for Environmental Matters” in 1993, no two states have ever agreed that a given dispute is “environmental”. States remain hesitant about referring to an international environmental jurisdiction. This case, however, could qualify for a case in the ICJ “Chamber for Environmental Matters”. Judges and advocates will get the chance to simulate this unique case, which can be tied back to the central conference theme “Advancing Climate Action: the key to a sustainable future”.
Having lived in five different countries, I have a had a multicultural experience that has extended my view of other cultures. I have come to appreciate the role of MUN in providing a foundation of skills and values. In addition to participating in MUN, I enjoy swimming, playing piano and photography. BERMUN 2 will mark my sixth conference.
Judges and advocates of the ICJ, let us arrive with an open mind and use this conference as an opportunity to grow.
I look forward to meeting you in February!
President of the International Court of Justice
Dear ICJ Participants,
This year at BERMUN2, we will be hearing the case “Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay).” The case concerns a dispute over Uruguay’s construction of two pulp mills on the River Uruguay which prompted Argentina to invoke the 1975 Statute between the two countries in an attempt to close these mills because they were allegedly polluting the river. It was one of the first environmental disputes to be ruled on in an international court. The case is also closely linked to the conference theme, “Advancing Climate Action: the Key to a Sustainable Future,” because it created an awareness of and jurisdiction regarding to environmental affairs.
I have thoroughly enjoyed my experiences serving in various functions on the International Court of Justice. It was truly fascinating analyzing important documents relevant to a wide range of intriguing cases and learning the particulars about ICJ procedure and international law. I find that the ICJ is a great way to experience the environment of a courtroom. As the Court consists of fewer participants compared to other committees, each individual has many more opportunities to engage in the case throughout the conference.
Although I was born in Berlin, Germany, I’ve spent most of my life in Belgium and have American and Lebanese roots. Since returning to Berlin in August of 2016, I have taken part in the weekly MUN debates at John F. Kennedy High School. My other hobbies include Gaelic football and hurling.
I look forward to meeting all of you at BERMUN2!
Assistant President of the ICJ
I am excited to work with you in the ICJ as my first time being a Student Officer. At this year’s BERMUN2 our committee will be discussing the case of “Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay” (Uruguay vs. Venezuela) as it relates to the overall topic of this conference. Climate action and preserving Earth’s environment greatly intrigues me, and I believe both are the keys to sustainable development.
In the ICJ you will get a chance to engage in fruitful debate and constructive discussions, while also learning about international law and the court processes. I am looking forward to being one of your chairs!
I am a ninth-grader at the John F. Kennedy School in Berlin. Apart from participating in MUN, I am on a lacrosse team, play clarinet in the school band, and partake in a student-run committee named “The Feminist Initiative”.
Can’t wait to meet you at the end of February!
Co-Chair of the ICJ
Dear Delegates of the Economic and Social Council,
Welcome to BERMUN2 2019! It is truly an honor to serve as your SC President this year and, together with all of you, tackle the issue of “Environmentally Displaced Persons”. For two days, we will explore the relationship between the conference theme and our committee topic, learning how to work together efficiently and productively to draft successful resolutions combating the problem at hand.
This topic is especially important because it affects every single one of us. Our environment’s health has, for a while now, been disregarded and not properly cared for. We all know that this has already had dire consequences ranging from extremely hot summers to more frequent natural catastrophes. But the rising sea levels all over the world now pose an especially dangerous situation because people are forced to leave their homes. The international community- which includes you- now needs to take the necessary climate action in order to solve this problem and avoid an almost inevitable refugee crisis.
As this topic influences all of us no matter where we live, or what our social status, religion, skin color or gender is, we need to make sure to collectively resolve this problem. This is the reason why I particularly hope to see determination and focus in the committee. At the same time we will of course enjoy our time together in a fun and respectful learning environment. I will do my best to make this conference as great as possible and I am certain you will do the same.
Currently, I am in the 11th grade of the John. F. Kennedy School in Berlin and have had the privilege of being a part of the MUN program for roughly two and a half years. It has really helped shape me as the person I am today and has served as educational and informative in many ways. Other than occupying myself with school or MUN, I spend my time with family and friends, singing and listening to music.
I hope we will all learn something from this conference and from each other and understand global issues from a different perspective. Be sure to prepare for lobbying and debate in advance and if you have any questions at all you are more than welcome to contact me!
I am very excited to meet all of you at the conference and engage in productive debates!
Saphira Al Amry
President of the ECOSOC
Welcome to this year’s BERMUN2 Economic and Social Council!
We hear a lot about people having to relocate due to wars, and we frequently hear about migrants looking for a better economic perspective for example by attempting to migrate from Central America to the United States of America. We have also heard about people like the Rohingya that have fled from persecution in Myanmar, but how often have we heard about the millions of people every year that have to leave their homes due to changes in the environment?
The UN and various national governments are working hard to find solutions for all people fleeing from violent conflict for instance through organizing pledge conferences where states pledge millions of dollars to support the people impacted by wars such as the Yemen Civil War. But, how hard are they working to find a sustainable solution for the millions of people in more than 100 countries leaving their homes due to climate change?
I am extremely excited to join you in developing a sustainable solution to this pertinent issue to ensure that every victim of the changing environment, regardless of where they live, will be able to recover from any consequence of climate change.
On a personal note, I am 14 years old and in the ninth grade at the John F. Kennedy School in Berlin. BERMUN2 will be my sixth conference, but my first as a Student Officer. Aside from being involved in MUN, I love playing bassoon and enjoy Mathematics.
I look forward to meeting all of you soon!
Assistant President of the Economic and Social Council
I am very proud to be able to welcome you to the Economic and Social Council of this year’s BERMUN 2 conference.
The topic we will be discussing is ‘Advancing Climate Action, The Key to a Sustainable Future’, specifically ‘Environmentally Displaced Persons’. Most of us have not personally experienced environmental displacement, due to us being very fortunate and privileged. However, most of us are affected by this issue in one way or another, for example when coming into contact with refugees and will be affected by it more in the future. This makes it an even bigger threat to life as we know it, because it seems like an issue far away from home, when in reality it is right at our doorsteps. Our entire future will be reshaped by global migration for various reasons, one of the biggest causes being the Environment displacing people. The news headlines mention mass migration and challenges to sustainability so often, that the problem seems impossible to solve.
Most of us do not realize that we are affected by the same environmental factors that cause migration. The issue is bigger than we suspect. Modern cities, such as Shanghai, are covered in smog and the islands we visit on holiday are slowly sinking below sea level. The issue at hand is a global one with lots of opportunities for fruitful debate and constructive resolutions. I look forward to all delegates enjoying and actively participating in debating innovative solutions to the committee topic and the conference theme.
Being in the 10th grade and completing myIGCSE program at Institut Montana Zugerberg in Switzerland, I find this topic to be one of the most interesting that I have encountered in my three years with the Montana MUN program and the 9 European MUN conferences that I have participated in. I can safely say that this experience has helped me develop as a person
more than any other school activity. Besides MUN, in my free time I enjoy playing rugby, being with family and friends, and reading. MUN has become a large part of my life, mostly due to the way it prepares you for your future life.
I look forward to
meeting you all at the conference and to exciting debates!
Lloyd K. Weber
Assistant President of
the Economic and Social Council
Dear delegates of the SC,
Welcome to the Security Council at BERMUN2 2019!
This year we will be discussing a topic surrounding the central theme of “Advancing Climate Action: The Key to a Sustainable Future”. Climate control is one of the major challenges that humankind faces. Political leaders will have to put aside any bilateral disputes and conform to what is necessary to stop climate change. The likelihood of this occurring has been and will continue to be disputed.
The SC will be looking at the situation of the Sahel region of Africa. As a result of disastrous droughts and food shortages, this region has faced significant migration from rural areas to cities, caused even further strain on food supplies. All this has contributed to both social and political instability, such the emergence of extremist groups. SC delegates will have to come up with tangible solutions to provide resources in a region plagued with environmental difficulties and corruption and means by which to improve the region’s capacity to provide for itself.
MUN has allowed me to improve my public speaking skills and meet numerous people with similar interests to mine. However, when I joined in 9th grade, I was not aware of how quickly I would become infatuated with this activity. When I am not participating in Model United Nations, I enjoy rock-climbing and listening to music. I was born in Vienna and grew up in the United States. Currently, I live in Berlin and am in the 11th grade at Berlin Cosmopolitan School. This conference will be my tenth as a delegate and my fifth as a chair. I aim to make this conference memorable for all delegates by fostering informative and interesting dialogue during debate.
I look forward to meeting you all in February and am excited to witness the debates which will take place.
President of the Security Council
Welcome to the Security Council!
It is my pleasure to introduce myself as one of the assistant presidents of the Security Council. This is my fourth year as a member of the MUN program and BERMUN2 2019 marks my 9th MUN conference. Learning how to phrase arguments and convincingly represent a country’s policy as a delegate has prepared me to chair at BERMUN2 2019, my fourth chairing experience. My MUN experiences have opened my eyes to current political events and to the fact that we must stand for our values and take action in our communities and societies. The MUN program is a platform which has taught me how to raise my voice and to speak up for what I believe.
Tensions around the fertile Sahel in Northern Africa are rising, accompanied by starvation, drought and violence. Being a fertile strip of land at the edges of the desert, many desertous countries lay claim to parts of the Sahel, creating rifts and blockades in international relations. As droughts increase and governments’ security crumbles, the hunger crisis is more prevalent than ever. Humanitarian aid is delivered year after year, but only manages to mitigate the crisis. The international community, and the SC in particular, must find long term solutions for situations concerning hunger, famine, draught, power supply, and the delivery of aid into inaccessible areas.
The chairs at my first conference inspired me by being charismatic and encouraging all participants to contribute to debate .I hope to do the same in our committee. In this year’s SC, we will try to find original solutions during this BERMUN2 conference. I have no doubt that we will all use this experience and widen each other’s social and political understandings.
Assistant President of the Security Council
Honorable Delegates of the Security Council,
I feel privileged to serve as a first-time co-chair for this year’s Security Council. This year’s theme: “Advancing Climate Action: The Key to a Sustainable Future” is a theme of the utmost importance as failure to counteract climate change will directly cause a variety of other issues. According to the UNHCR, 21.5 million people have been forcibly displaced since 2008 due to climate change-related weather hazards. Not only has resource scarcity caused by climate change become a common cause of conflicts, but harsher conditions have also caused the displacement of refugees to be more complicated.
Climate change could be ameliorated through small, everyday steps that every person can make. However, there is only so much individuals can do, which is why agreements such as the Paris Climate Accords are so important. For that reason, MUN is a program very dear to my heart as it has not only cemented my belief in the efficacy of young people taking action to solve the problems they may face in the future, but it has helped me further my knowledge of the United Nations as a whole.
On a more personal note, I am a French-German 11th grader at the John F. Kennedy School here in Berlin. Outside of MUN, I enjoy playing soccer, swimming and listening to music. In total, this will be my third MUN conference and second BERMUN conference. I joined JFKS at the beginning of this school year, before which I lived in Japan, France, the USA, and Thailand due to my father’s position in the French embassy.
I hope that MUN will become as big a part of your life as it has become of mine, and that you see it as an opportunity to view issues and conflicts from a perspective that isn’t necessarily your own.
I look forward to meeting you in March!
Until then, I yield the floor back to you,
Assistant President of the Security Council
Welcome to the SpC!
This year in the SpC you will be discussing the subject that may lead to the end of the world and mankind if ignored. Now this may sound dramatic, yet the truth of the matter is really just as drastic as it seems. The earth is warming at an alarming rate and the results of climate change are clearly impacting are lives. There are constant droughts, wildfires, floods, storms and cold snaps of a magnitude and ferocity never seen before. It may seem difficult to transfer idea of the dystopic, apocalyptic possible future to international politics, where actions are often not concrete enough and national economic interests override the desire for comprehensive, long-term climate action.
One of the main contributors to climate change is energy consumption. The use of sustainable energy is a viable solution to our energy problem but to truly make the move to sustainable energies there need to be leaps in technology. The problem remains of that we consume too much for the ecosystem to deal with the consequential CO2 emissions.
This Bermun2 will be my sixth MUN conference overall and my second as a Student Officer. I look forward to working with all of you to find creative solutions to the issue of energy overconsumption.
I can’t wait to meet you all in March!
President of the SpC
Dear delegates of the Special Conference,
Welcome to BERMUN2 2019! I feel honored to serve as a first-time chair in the SpC. I am a 15-year-old student at the John F. Kennedy School in Berlin. My interests include soccer, tennis, rowing, music and of course politics.
Taking part in the MUN program has not only furthered my general knowledge of politics but also shown me how politics affect our daily lives. And this relates to the topic in the Special Committee at BERMUN2 2019 more than anything else: Ending Energy Overconsumption.
We see on a daily basis how people in power let our future earth become irreparably damaged, and we, the youth, need to take action. Through decreasing energy consumption we can help lower greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere and prevent global warming and the consequences of climate change from causing more damage to our planet than what has already been done.
Therefore I hope for you as delegates, to engage in lobbying and debate in order to enjoy the conference as much as I have in my past experiences as a MUN delegate.
I look forward to seeing you in March!
Assistant President of the Special Conference
Welcome to the 2019 BERMUN2 conference!
From three billion people just fifty years ago to seven billion in 2011, the world’s population has increased remarkably, and is expected to reach the 15 billion mark by 2100. Overall, global prosperity continues to rise and is at its highest point ever. The world economy is experiencing growth and educational standards have risen.
Yet however, with those great improvements of prosperity in almost all parts of the world, the overconsumption of energy and its corresponding effects have become a challenge that is more important today than ever before. An increased carbon footprint, aggravated risks of climate change and high energy costs caused by a shortage of supply are global challenges that require international cooperation in order to be solved.
The 2019 BERMUN2 Special Conference will tackle this very issue. As the topic of energy overconsumption influences all of us in our daily lives, no matter where we live, the committee strives to bring students from all around the globe together and encourage a far-sighted debate.
It is my distinct honor to serve as the Assistant President of the Special Conference. This year’s BERMUN2 will be my final time chairing a conference in Berlin. Over the past five years, I had the amazing opportunity to experience Model United Nations as all Delegate, Student Officer and Secretary General, and develop a truly deep passion for the program.
I am currently a senior at the Innerstädtisches Gymnasium Rostock on the Baltic Sea coast in Germany. Besides that, I’d consider myself a professional food-admirer that loves to surf, play music and spend time with friends and family. MUN definitely has shaped who I am as a person, what I strive for and what I aspire to do.
I am looking forward to meeting all of you in March! Let’s make this BERMUN2 the best ever!
Assistant President of the Special Conference
Honorable EC delegates,
With climate action the focus of BERMUN2 2019, the Environment Committee could not be more relevant to the upcoming conference. After last year’s hiatus, we will convene this February to confront an issue of ever greater importance in international environmental policy-making: Reducing Pollution in Industrial Zones and Urban Areas. Past decades have seen rapid urbanization and industrialization that have contributed to spiraling levels of air, water, and noise pollution, particularly in the Global South. While just over half of the world’s population currently resides in urban centers today, the proportion is set to rise to 70% by 2050. Ensuring the clean and sustainable development of urban areas and industrial zones will as such be vital.
Over the three days of the conference, I hope to offer a helping hand as we explore options to safeguard our planet’s future. To this end, I will be serving in the capacity of Head Chair of the Environment Committee. Having mostly presided over Security Council debates on country-specific topics, I look forward to engaging with a highly relevant, global issue once again.
This BERMUN2 will mark the thirteenth and final conference of my Model UN career. Looking back on my past BERMUN2 experiences, I realize that the conferences in which I invested the most yielded the most enduring memories. I encourage all of you to give your best in preparing for the conference this February. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me or my co-chairs.
Head Chair of the Environment Committee
Dear Delegates of the Environment Committee,
I am honored to welcome all of you to the 2019 BERMUN2 Conference!
This year, the conference theme is closely related to the committee, as in the EC our committee topic will be “Reducing pollution in industrial zones and urban areas”. This is a difficult issue to handle as the price of renewable energy often is unsustainable in LEDCs. Delegates will have to find a delicate balance between the needs of the population and the protection of our host planet. This controversial subjects will hopefully spawn fruitful debate.
Outside of the conference, I’m a student at the John F. Kennedy school who enjoys activities such as Quizbowl, Taekwondo, and climbing. This will be my fourth time chairing and my twelfth conference in total. Through these experiences, I have gained confidence in my public speaking while enjoying the conferences. My previous conferences as a chair have also taught me how to help delegates to find other nations with similar policies and to piece together resolutions.
I look forward to meeting this year’s batch of bright delegates who will have prepared dutifully and well for the conference!
Co-Chair of the Environmental Committee
Honorable delegates of the Environment Committee,
In each of our lifetimes we have been given front row seats to the ever-evolving environmental debate, and as such we have been able to witness the increase in global consciousness in this regard. No longer can conservation efforts be regarded as idealistic concepts driven by altruistic values. Looking specifically at the past year, we have seen the shift of the climate change conversation from one which questions its existence in its entirety to one which calls upon the greatest actors of the world stage to respond to the call to action to address one of the greatest collective dilemmas of the 21st century. It is for this reason that our debate in this year’s Environment Committee will be more relevant than ever.
The question which we will be debating, Reducing Pollution in Industrial Zones and Urban Areas, is one which draws aptly upon the temporal relevance of the global environmental conversation. While on the surface this is a topic which suggests specific and local solutions, it cannot be sufficiently addressed without first understanding the connection to the broader issues of globalization, reliance on fossil fuels, and overpopulation. I encourage all delegates to approach this year’s topic from a creative and globally-minded perspective.
I am enthusiastic to see the ways the evolving nature of the environmental debate allows for highly nuanced and creative solutions. MUN is a wonderful opportunity for students to think outside of their comfort zones and address other perspectives, and as this is the second time I have chaired the Environment Committee and my tenth conference overall. I look forward to a productive debate, but most importantly to a fun and inclusive experience.
In this spirit, I look forward to meeting you all in February!
Jillian Elora Stein
Co-Chair of the Environment Committee
It is my pleasure to welcome you to BERMUN2 and more specifically, the World Health Organisation. Over the course of the three days, we will be exploring the issue of the spread of infectious disease influenced by climate change. Climate change and the spread of infectious diseases are intrinsically linked. Rising temperatures can accelerate parasitic development and increase the transmission period. At the same time, as the ability to protect the population from these diseases and to create general preventative measures is very dependant on a country’s wealth, a cooperative divide is created between the more and less affluent member states of the World Health Organisation. Regardless, I have faith that you, as delegates, will find innovative and incorporative solutions to this issue.
On a more personal note, I am currently in my 12th year at Nelson Mandela School and have been participating in the MUN programme since 9th grade. I have lived in Berlin for nearly my entire life but have a very multinational background, with German, Egyptian, Lebanese and Cambodian roots. That in itself allows me to appreciate and experience cultural diversity and differences but also transcultural cooperation on a nearly daily basis. Even though, BERMUN2 will be my fifth time chairing, it will be my first time chairing a committee like the WHO. Nevertheless, I am excited to explore what the committee has to offer.
I look forward to meeting you all at BERMUN2!
Chair of the World Health Organisation
Dear Participants of the WHO,
I am honored to have the opportunity to serve as assistant president of the World Health Organization at this year’s BERMUN 2 conference. I have been a part of MUN for little over a year now. I have attended four conferences prior to this one, however this is my first conference in which I partake as a chair rather than as a delegate. The WHO is a very interesting committee as we discuss ways of dealing with world health problems and diseases, rather than regional conflicts or human rights issues. This sets the WHO apart, as more countries work together to achieve a common health related goal.
I was born in Berlin, and have lived here my entire life. I go the John F. Kennedy School and participate actively in the weekly debate program. Besides politics, my other interests include taekwondo, history and theatre.
I believe that our topic this year is both interesting and relevant in our modern world, as countries struggle to protect the earth and stop climate change, while still preserving their economy. With climate change come other consequences that many have not yet considered, as new and strengthened diseases sweep over our globe. These issues lead to conflict, as some economies rely on fossil fuels or other methods that harm the environment, while other countries are able to switch to more sustainable methods, but do not, as they don’t wish to spend a high amount of money on the environment. These and many other issues will be debated in the WHO this year, and I look forward to see these conflicts play out.
I am very excited to see you all this year in the WHO at Bermun2!
Assistant President of the World Health Organization
Welcome to the World Health Organization where we will be debating on how to tackle the spread of infectious diseases influenced by climate change. We need to come up with ways to advance and battle the impact of these climatic consequences for a sustainable future. It is important to be active in creating effective measures toward climate change for our countries, while hopefully being well-informed and constructive in debate.
Over the course of the next few months you will be preparing yourselves to become specialists on our country’s policies and how you can use these to achieve the committee and conference goals. Simply dedicating time to really see the depth of the topic will provide an interesting and successful debate the rest of the committee.
BERMUN2 will be my first time chairing and I am honored to be able to do so with such an interesting topic at hand. I have been a delegate at a few conferences and encourage you to participate as much as you can. I look forward to seeing how you respond to this theme!
See you in February!
Co-Chair of the World Health Organisation
Dear Students, dear Directors,
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. Its principal mandate includes settling legal disputes brought to it by UN Member States. In addition, various international organs, agencies, and the United Nations General Assembly can call upon the ICJ for counseling and advice. Ensuring legal justice globally and safeguarding nations’ sovereignty is at the heart of the ICJ.
Since its establishment in 2000, the Berlin Model International Court of Justice (BMICJ) has aimed to simulate this renowned Court. In 2019,we will for the second time be part of the BERMUN2 conference. Our simulation is a challenging forum and a “crash course” in international law making it an ideal opportunity for students who are interested in law. All members of the ICJ will learn to analyze legal evidence and hone their rhetorical skills. The intimacy of our small “committee” will enable participants to engage in the Court’s proceedings.
To make this year’s endeavor yet another success, dedication before and during the conference is crucial. For BERMUN2 2019, we have selected the case Argentina v. Uruguay concerning the alleged breach of the Statute of the River Uruguay. The alleged breaches examined in this case regard the construction of two Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay authorized by Uruguay. Argentina charged Uruguay with having unilaterally authorized the construction of these Mills and therefore coming in violation of the Statute of the River Uruguay’s obligatory notification and consultation procedures.
The BERMUN2 ICJ is composed of 10 to 14 independent judges and two pairs of advocates. Additionally, three student officers, two Presidents and one Registrar, lead the simulation. During the conference, the advocates argue their case through speeches and the presentation of factual and legal evidence. The judges deliberate upon the information presented to them and compose a verdict expressing their judgment. Student Officers advise the advocates in the pre-conference preparation and assist them in identifying and organizing their key arguments. In addition, we guide the judges in their deliberation, help them evaluate legal documents, and facilitate deliberation.
The ICJ Student Officer team encourages any participating BERMUN2 students to take advantage of this unique opportunity. For any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact us by email at email@example.com.
Leoni Payano (President of the ICJ)
Louay Sattar (Assistant President of the ICJ)
Chelsea Wilp (Registrar of the ICJ)